中級編

It … that 型の強調構文(1)問題編

ヤマアラシくん

強調構文かどうかの判断の基準

 

(例1) Itは形式主語 / that節は名詞節

 

In those days it was the will of God that men should offer sacrifices to him.

「当時、人間は神に いけにえを捧げるべきだ、というのが神の意志であった」

 

(例2) the will of God が it was thatによって強調された構文

 

In those days it was the will of God that men should respect most.

「当時、人間が最も尊重しなければならなかったのは、神の意志であった」

 

(例1) と (例2) との差は、単に形式上の問題ではなく、大きな意味の差になります。両者を識別できることは、きわめて重要です。

 

S塾長
S塾長
両者の識別は以下の基準によりますよ。

 

まず前提として、

It … that型の構文の「…」の位置に置かれて強調されるもの

= ①名詞(要素),または②副詞(要素)のみ

  公式化すると

➊(1)It is + 形容詞[p.p.]+ that …

123⇒ 形式主語と名詞節の構文

 

(2)It is + 副詞(要素)+ that …

123⇒ 強調構文

 

(例:It was on Sunday that I saw him.)

 

➋  It is + 名詞(要素)+ that …

(1) that以下に欠けている名詞がない場合

123⇒ 形式主語と名詞節の構文

 

(2) that以下に欠けている名詞がある場合

123⇒ 強調構文

 

(主語または動詞・前置詞の目的語の欠落)

 

演習問題

 

問1

 

It is want of imagination that prevents people from seeing things from any point of view but their own.

 

問2

 

It is just the literature that we read for “amusement,” or “purely for pleasure” that may have the greatest influence upon us.

 

問3

 

It is worth while to consider what it is that makes people happy, what they can do to make themselves happy.

 

問4

 

It’s in self‐sacrifice that a man fulfils himself. It’s in giving all he has to those who are near and dear to him that he solves the riddle of life.

 

It is not until … that ~

 

構文のしくみ

 

They did not start until it got dark.

 

暗くなるまで彼らは出発しなかった 

≒ 暗くなってはじめて彼らは出発した

 

S塾長
S塾長
否定語のnotを文頭に移動させて全体を倒置させます。

↓ 

Not until it got dark did they start.

 

S塾長
S塾長
Not until it got dark をit is … thatではさんで強調しますよ。

↓ 

It was not until it got dark that they started.

暗くなってはじめて彼らは出発した

 

例題と解説

 

It was not until the shadow of the forest had crept far across the lake and the darkening waters were still that we rose reluctantly to put dishes in the basket and start on our homeward journey.

 

森の影が湖の向こう側まで遠く伸び、暗さを増していく湖水が静かになってはじめて、私たちは気の進まぬまま立ち上がり、皿をバスケットに入れ家路についた。

 

 It was not until … that ~ の部分を、It was only after [when] … that ~ と書き替えることができます。

 

なお、強調構文はふつう、that以下から文頭へ返って訳しますが、このタイプの構文では、thatの前から文末へ向かって訳すことになるので、注意が必要です。

 

It … that型の強調構文の注意点

 

It is … thatの … の位置に名詞を置いて強調するとき

① 名詞が「人」であれば

12→ It is … that と並んで、It is … who も用いられる

② 名詞が「物」であれば

12→ It is … that と並んで、It is … which も用いられる

 

問1

 

Science may tell us that in the struggle for life it is the fittest who survive, but we who have lived through two great wars have seen with our eyes that it is the bravest, the noblest and the best who perish.

※ the struggle for life「生存競争」

 

問2

 

It was my teacher’s genius, her quick sympathy, her loving tact which made the first years of my education so beautiful. It was because she realized the right moment to impart knowledge that made it so pleasant and acceptable to me.

※ impart [他動詞] 「〈知識・秘密などを〉(人に)伝える,知らせる

 

参考

 It is because he has behaved so badly that he must be punished.

(彼を罰しなければならないのは、行儀がひどく悪かったからだ)

 

It … that型の強調構文の疑問文

 

問1

 

What is it that you want to talk to me about?

 

問2

 

What is it in him that makes him say something nasty every time he opens his mouth?

 

問3

 

How is it that many people who have brilliant brains mature so late emotionally?